Markus Schröppel Englische Fachbegriffe

english glossary

Unterricht · lectures



advance width The width of a letter including its surrounding space. The surrounding space on the left is called the left sidebearing. On the right it is called the right sidebearing.

Aliasing In computer graphics, an undesirable effect--also known as ›jaggies‹--in which the edge of the image or letter is characterized by a stair-step appearance

Alignment A term used to refer to the proper positioning of all typefaces and size variations along an imaginary reference line

All Rights In publishing, the purchase of all subsidiary rights to a publication, illustration, or photograph, including North American and international rights, serials rights, etc

anti-aliasing On low-resolution bitmap devices (where ragged, ugly characters are the norm) which support more than two colors, it is possible to provide the appearance of higher resolution with anti-aliasing. Anti-aliasing uses shaded pixels around the edges of the bitmap to give the appearance of partial-pixels which improves the apparent resolution.

Aqueous Coating Water-based coating applied by a printing press to protect and enhance the printed surface

Ascender The part of a lowercase letter which rises above the main body, as in the letters ›b‹, ›d‹, ›h‹, and ›k‹

ascent A font's maximum distance above the baseline.


Back Matter All the material that follows the main text of the book such as appendix, bibliography, and glossary

Banner In typography, any large headline, especially one that spans the width of a page

Baseline An invisible horizontal line on which the feet of all characters on a line of type are set, used for proper alignment of type, The imaginary line upon which the characters of a font rest. The baseline-to-baseline distance can be calculated as ascent - descent + linegap.

BDF File Format BDF (Bitmap Distribution Format) is used by the X Window System; Type Bitmap.

Binding and Finishing Activities performed on printed material after printing

Binding involves fastening individual sheets together, while finishing involves additional decorative actions such as die-stamping and embossing

Bitmap (Bitmapped) In computer graphics, the collection of individual dots--or pixels--that make up a screen image. A bitmap is an array of dots. If you imagine a sheet of graph paper with some squares colored in, a bitmap is a compact way of representing to the computer which squares are colored and which are not. In a bitmapped font, every character is represented as a pattern of dots in a bitmap. The dots are so small (300 or more dots-per-inch, usually) that they are indistinguishable on the printed page.

Blanket A synthetic rubber mat used in offset lithography to transfer--or ›offset‹--an image from a metal plate to the paper

Bleed A printed image that extends beyond one or more of the finished page margins and is later trimmed so that the image ›bleeds‹ off the edge of the sheet

Block Text or Block Type In typography, paragraphs set without indents

Body Text The main portion of a book or other document, excluding front matter and back matter

Book Typography The setting and arrangement of the various parts of a book

Block Quote A long quotation--four or more lines--within body text, that is set apart in order to clearly distinguish the author’s words from the words the author is quoting

Byline In magazine and newspaper publishing, a line added to an article identifying the author (and other contributors) of the article


Callout In typography, any of several different typographic elements that are, in essence, ›called-out‹ of the main body text, such as text pasted onto an illustration to identify specific portions of it

Camera-Ready To-be-printed copy and/or artwork that requires no additional layout, positioning, redrawing, or typesetting or, in other words, is prepared to be photographed for a negative or printing plate

Synonymous terms are camera-ready copy and camera-ready art

Camera-Ready Art Alternate term for camera-ready

See Camera-Ready

Camera-Ready Copy Alternate term for camera-ready

See Camera-Ready

Cap Height In typography, the distance from the baseline to the top of the capital letters

Caption In typography and page layout, any strictly descriptive text accompanying an illustration, located beneath it, alongside it, or above it

Cast Coated Paper Paper dried under pressure against a heated, polished cylinder to produce a high-gloss enamel finish

Character Any letter, figure, punctuation, symbol or space.

    (1) The smallest component of written language that has semantic value. Character refers to the abstract idea, rather than
         a specific shape (see also glyph), though in code tables some form of visual representation is essential for the reader's
    (2) The basic unit of encoding for the Unicode character encoding, 16 bits of information.
    (3) Synonym for ›code element‹.
    (4) The English name for the ideographic written elements of Chinese origin.

Character vs. Glyph: What's the difference? A character is an encoded slot in a font that is assigned a number when in codepage or Unicode view. A glyph is the contents of that slot: the outlines you've drawn in FontLab. Some glyphs are unencoded - that is, they don't get a number assigned in any codepage or in Unicode. Some characters can relate to multiple glyphs, such as when you make alternate forms of a given character and associate them with OpenType layout features. For example, the letter ›A‹ is Unicode U+0041. But you might also have a ›swash cap A‹ and a ›small cap A‹ and an alternate version of the ›A‹, all in the same font: one character, but four different glyphs. Thomas Phinney

Clip Art Ready made artwork sold or distributed for clipping and pasting into publications

Available in hard-copy books, and in electronic form, as files on a disk

CMYK Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black)

The four process colors

Coated Paper Paper with a coating of clay or other substances that improve reflectivity and ink holdout

Color Chart A set of color swatches, or samples of printed color that are used to accurately mix, match, choose, and communicate a particular color

Color Matching System A set of color charts and/or swatches--either in printed form or as computer-generated samples--used to compare, match, and specify different colors

Color Separation A means of dividing a full-color photograph into four separate components, corresponding to the four primary colors used in process color printing - cyan, magenta, yellow, and black

Color Swatch A sample of a specific color--either printed or stored digitally--used to describe a particular printing ink or combination of printing ink colors

Color Wheel Primary Colors = red, blue and yellow

(In printing; cyan, magenta, and yellow). Secondary Colors = Orange, Violet, and Green. Tertiary Colors = Colors produced by mixing two or more secondary colors, as in Green-Violet, Orange-Green, Violet-Orange, etc

Column Gutter The space between columns of type

Complementary Colors On a color wheel, the colors opposite of each other as in Blue and Orange, Yellow and Violet, Red and Green

Comprehensive Layout Commonly referred to as a ›comp‹ is a stage in the page layout and design process consisting of a detailed dummy or layout of the page to be reproduced, showing the exact placement of page elements (text, illustrations, etc.) in a form comparable to that of the final print

Condensed Font (also Condensed Type) A font in which the set widths of the characters is narrower than in the standard typeface

Often used when large amounts of copy need to fit into a small space

Continuous Tone Essentially, a photographic image that is not composed of halftone dots or, in other words, an image that consists of tone values ranging from some minimum density (such as white) to a maximum density (such as black)

Contour In typography, the setting of type in a shape in order to create the appearance of an object

Copy Any material that is to be typeset, be it a manuscript or typescript, or a typewritten document with handwritten changes and edits

Copy is also used to refer generally to any other page elements--including illustrations, photographs, etc--that will need to be prepared and assembled

Copyfitting In typography, the process of estimating the point size and leading in which a particular piece of copy will need to be set to fit in a (usually) predetermined amount of space

Counter In typography, the space in a letter or other character enclosed--either fully or partially--by the strokes of the character, as in the center of the letter ›o‹

Crop Marks Lines drawn or printed on a photograph, overlay, or printed product to indicate the proper cropping of the image or print in question

Also spelled as one word in cropmarks

Cropping Cutting off an undesired portion of a printed piece, photograph or other image


diacritic A mark normally used in conjunction with another glyph. In Latin fonts these are sometimes called 'accents'. In Hebrew and Arabic these are marks that denote vowels.

Descender In typography, the portion of lowercase letters that extends below the character’s baseline as in ›g‹, ›j‹, ›p‹, ›q‹, and ›y‹

Die In binding and finishing, as metal plate or block etched with a design, lettering, or other pattern

Diecutting In binding and finishing, a finishing operation involving the use of sharp steel blades to cut a specific pattern into a substrate or to cut the substrate itself into a specific pattern

Die-Stamping In binding and finishing, a finishing operation similar to embossing in which hard metal dies are used to stamp or press images or patterns into a surface, such as a cloth book cover

Display Type In typography, type set in a larger point size than the text (commonly greater than 14 point), such as in headlines

Dither In digital imaging, to use the colors of two pixels to determine the color of a pixel lying between them

This new pixel thus has a value that is the average of the two pixels on either side of it. Dithering is often used to eliminate unwanted jaggies

DPI (Dots per inch) is a unit of measurement used to describe the resolution of printed output. The most common desktop laser printers output at 300 dpi, Medium-resolution printers output at 600 dpi, and Image setters output at 1270-2540 dpi

Drop Folio In book typography, page number, or folio, that is printed at the bottom of a page: Also known as a foot folio

Duotone A two-color halftone produced by overprinting two halftone screens made from the same photograph (usually black-and-white photograph), as a means of generating a monochromatic image with a full range of tonal gradations


Em In typography, a fixed space having a height and a width equal to that of the point size

Em Dash In typography, a dash one em long, used to set off parenthetical text, replace missing text matter, or function in lieu of a colon

Embossing In binding and finishing, a process in which images, patterns, or text are stamped or pressed into a substrate

Em Space In typography, a fixed space one em in length

En In typography, a unit of measurement exactly one-half as wide as, and as high as, the point size being set

En Dash In typography, a dash one en long, used to represent the words to or through, or function in lieu of a colon

Engraving Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface

Extended Type Typefaces that are wide horizontally -- an example is Microgramma Extended


Facing Pages In a double-sided document, the two pages that appear as a spread when the publication is opened

family; font-family A family is all the fonts that comprise a group, as in Bunface Light, Bunface Light Italic, Bunface, Bunface Italic, Bunface Bold and Bunface Bold Italic. Some families will also include other weights, like Semi-Bold or Book, and fonts that have been Condensed or Extended, or any combination of these two, weight and aspect ratio.

Fixed Space In typography, a blank space of a fixed increment, used where a constant-width blank space is required, since typographic word spaces vary in width according to the justification needs of a line

Flush Right In typography, a paragraph or lines of text are aligned on the right side: Synonymous with the term Right Justified

Flush Left In typography, a paragraph or lines of text are aligned on the left side: Synonymous with the term Left Justified

Foil Stamping In binding and finishing, a finishing operation in which a design or other image is pressed onto a substrate. In foil stamping, a heated die containing a relief (raised) image presses down on a roll of foil passing above the substrate to be decorated

Folio In typography, a page number, commonly placed outside the running head at the top of the page

Folios are also commonly set flush left on verso pages and flush right on recto pages

They can also be centered at the top of the page

A folio that appears at the bottom of a page is called a drop folio

FON File Format FON: Bitmap Font; Microsoft Windows Bitmap Font; System font.

Font In typography, a set of all characters in a typeface. A particular collection of characters of a typeface with unique parameters in the 'Variation vector', a particular instance of values for orientation, size, posture, weight, etc., values. The word font or fount is derived from the word foundry, where, originally, type was cast. It has come to mean the vehicle which holds the typeface character collection. A font can be metal, photographic film, or electronic media (cartridge, tape, disk).

font formats Generally recommend font formats: OpenType; TrueType (Windows TrueType (TTF)); PostScript.

Foot Folio In book typography, page number that appears at the bottom of a page. Also known as a drop folio

Foot Margin In typography, the amount of blank space allowed between the bottom of the last line of text (or other bottommost page element) and the bottom edge of the sheet

Footnote In typography, a reference relating to the main body of text positioned at the bottom of the page

For Position Only (FPO) On a mechanical, a written designation applied to a low-resolution or inferior-quality image (such as a xerox of a photograph or line art) to indicate that the image (as seen) has only been added to the mechanical to indicate its position on the layout and thus is not indicative of the appearance of the final printed image

Four-Color Process In multi-color printing, the printing of process color by means of color separations corresponding to the four process colors: cyan, magenta, yellow and black

Front Matter In book typography and production, the pages of a book that precede the main text


Galley Proof A printout of text used for proofreading before final page assembly

Glyph A graphic symbol that provides the appearance or form for a character. A glyph can be an alphabetic or numeric font or some other symbol that pictures an encoded character.

Greeking In computing, a means of speeding up the display redraw rate of a computer monitor by representing text characters below a certain size as gray lines, boxes, or illegible dummy type

Gutter In typography, the term refers to the space between columns of type, usually determined by the number and width of columns and the overall width of the area to be filled


Halftone Any image--such as a photograph--that exists as a series of small dots of varying size and color density, which serve to simulate the appearance of continuous gradations of tone. Halftones are necessary in the reproduction of photographic images; most printing presses cannot print continuous tones, so photographic images must first be converted to a series of dots in order to be effectively printed

Hanging Indent In typography, a form of indention in which the first line or first few lines of a paragraph are set flush with the left margin, while the rest of the lines of that paragraph are indented a specified distance

Hard Copy Any page, document, publication, or other data that exists as some kind of output, be it on paper, film, etc., rather than as an item on a computer display or soft copy

Hard Hyphen In typography, a hyphen that is always typeset, regardless of where on the line it falls

Such a hyphen would be one of those in the word ›mother-in-law‹

Head The top of a book, page, or column

In typography, the term head is also an abbreviation for the term heading

Header In typography, any text that appears at the top of a page but is not part of the body text, such as a tile, author, chapter title, etc

A header appearing on every page is called a running head

Heading In typography, display type used to emphasize copy, act as a book, chapter, or section title, or otherwise introduce or separate text. More commonly referred to as simply a head

Hickey Any printing defect caused by a particle either of paper or other source of debris attaching itself to the printing plate

hints«; »hinting When a character is described in outline format the outline has unlimited resolution. If you make it ten times as big, it is just as accurate as if it were ten times as small.

    To be of use, we must transfer the character outline to a sheet of paper through a device called a raster image processor (RIP). The RIP builds the image of the character out of lots of little squares called picture elements (pixels).

    The problem is, a pixel has physical size and can be printed only as either black or white. Look at a sheet of graph paper. Rows and columns of little squares (think: pixels). Draw a large ›M‹ in the middle of the graph paper. Darken in all the squares touched by the O. Do the darkened squares form a letter that looks like the ›M‹ you drew? This is the problem with low resolution (300 dpi printerresolution). Which pixels do you turn on and which do you leave off to most accurately reproduce the character?

All methods of hinting strive to fit (map) the outline of a character onto the pixel grid and produce the most pleasing/recognizable character no matter how coarse the grid is. At the right ›M‹ the outline has been adjusted to fit snugly around each pixel, ensuring that the correct pixels are turned on.

Hyphenation Zone In typography, a ›zone‹ established by a typesetting device or software toward the end of a line, within which the system can hyphenate words. A hyphenation zone is commonly used in ragged right copy. The setting of the hyphenation zone is a way of controlling the number of hyphens that will appear in the set copy.


Ink Holdout The ability of paper to prevent ink from penetrating into its surface

In-Line In typography, a style of type that has a chiseled effect, as if chipped out of stone. Although classic in appearance, their use in small doses is most effective, and they are often used in display type and are especially well-suited to dropping out from a dark background


Jaggies Alternate term for the results of aliasing: See Aliasing; Also known as stairsteps.

Justification In typography, setting lines of text so that they line up on the left and right, as opposed to ragged right, in which the lines do not line up on the right

Justified Type that aligns on both the left and right side. Alternate term for justified text, justified type, and justified composition


Kerning In typography, the reduction of letterspacing between certain character combinations in order to reduce the space between them, performed for aesthetic reasons

Kiss Cut To die cut the top layer but not the backing of self-adhesive paper

Knockout A space left in a document for the later insertion of some form of graphic image. The term knockout is also used to refer to ›white type‹ or, in other words, type that prints as a reverse, or, in fact, does not really print at all, allowing the color of the page to show through a background in the shape of type


Laminate To bond a plastic film by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection and appearance

Landscape A page format in which the correct reading or viewing orientation is horizontal; the width of the page is greater than its height: See also Portrait

Leader In typography, dots (called dot leaders) or dashes (called dash leaders) that lead the eye from one side of a line to the other

Lead-In In typography, the first two or three words of a block of text set in a different, contrasting typeface or style (such as small caps or boldface)

Leading (pronounced ›led-ding‹) In typography, an alternate and more popularly used term for line spacing

Leaf Term for a sheet of paper in a book or other publication: Each side of a leaf is one page

Left Justified Alternate term for flush left: See Flush Left

Letterforms General term referring to all typographic characters and symbols

Letterpress The oldest of the major printing processes distinguished by its use of raised metal type. The type can be either individual characters or plates made with raised type

Letterspacing In typography, the space between typeset letters or other characters

Ligature In typography, two or more characters designed as a distinct unit and commonly available as a single character

Examples are ae, ce, etc

Line Art Any illustration material that contains no halftone, continuous tone, or tinted images: Pen-and-ink drawings are line art

Line Length In typography, the overall width of a typeset line, usually the area between two margins

Lithography A term describing a printing process in which the image area and the non-image area coexist on the same plane, in contract to letterpress (printing from raised type)

Logotype In typography, a symbol representing a company or product

Low-Resolution Descriptive of an image--either on a computer display or in printed form--that has a low number of dots--or pixels--per square inch


Magenta A term for one of the four process color inks used in multicolor printing. Also incorrectly referred to as ›red‹ (or process red), it is the red component used in many types of color mixing

Majuscule An alternate term for a capital letter

Manuscript Any original handwritten or typed (typescript) copy from which type will be set

Margin Any deliberately unprinted space on a page, especially surrounding a block of text. Margins are used not only to aid in the aesthetics and the readability of a page, but also to provide allowances for trimming, binding, and other post-press operations

Master Proof A galley proof containing flagged items and questions for the editor or author. Also known as a printer’s proof and reader’s proof

Masthead In newspaper and magazine publishing, the listing of the publication’s staff, management, address, etc., commonly printed toward the beginning of the publication. That term masthead is often confused with the flag or logo, which is a newspaper or other publication’s nameplate

Measure In typography, measure is synonymous with line length

Mechanical Camera-ready art consisting of typeset text, heads, line art or other illustration matter, and other page elements pasted up into the proper position and ready for the making of printing plates

Mezzotint An early technique in copperplate engraving, invented in the 17th century by Ludwig von Siegen, that involves etching a copper or steel printing plate with a pattern of crosshatched lines or dots to provide the illusion of continuous tone images and gray values

Miniscule Alternate term for a lowercase letter

Moire (pronounced ›mo-ray‹) An undesirable optical effect found in halftone reproductions resulting from interference patterns caused by incorrect screen angles

Monochromatic Possessing a single color

Monospaced In typography, descriptive of characters of a typeface all having the same width. The lowercase ›i‹ and ›m‹--which would have different widths in proportional width typefaces--are identical in monospaced typefaces

Morgue In desktop publishing, term for a collection of reference materials, such as an encyclopedia, dictionary, thesaurus, and materials from a swipe file, such as clip art

Mottle A printing defect characterized by a spotty, nonuniform appearance in solid printed areas


Negative Generally speaking, a reversed photographic image produced on acetate-based film or photosensitive, resin coated paper

Negative Space In design, the space not occupied by the text or images

Nested Indent In typography, a form of indention in which each subsequent indent is set relative to the previous indent, rather than from the left (or right) margin


Object-Oriented Descriptive of computer graphics that are based on vectors rather than bitmaps: See Vector Graphic

Oblique In typography, an alternate term for italic, or a term descriptive of a right-leaning change in the posture of the characters in a particular typeface

Offset Lithography A term describing the most common form of lithography (a printing process in which the image area and the non-image area coexist on the same plane, rather than from raised or etched type) in which a printed image is transferred first to a rubber blanket, and the blanket then transfers (or ›offsets‹) the image to the paper or other surface

Offset Printing Synonymous term for offset lithography

Orphan In typography, the last line of a paragraph when it is less than one-third the width of the line--especially when it is the carry-over of a hyphenated word--carried to the top of a new page or column


Palette The collection of colors or shades available or used in a project, graphic system, or program

Pantone A brand-name for a popular color matching system, or series of printed color swatches used to match, specify, identify, and display specific colors or colored ink combinations

Pasteup The composition of a page by assembling the disparate page elements, either manually or electronically, into a mechanical or other form of camera-ready copy

Pica A basic unit of measurement in typography. One pica equals 12 points, and 6 picas equal approximately 1 inch

Pixel Shorthand term for picture element, or the smallest point or dot on a computer monitor

Plate The basic image-carrying surface in a printing process which can be made of a variety of substances such as paper, metals, rubber, or plastic

Point (Point Size) Unit of measurement commonly used to specify type size

There are twelve points in a pica and 72 points in an inch

The (more or less) original point system (created by François-Ambroise Didot (1730-1804)) did have exactly 72 points to the inch. 1 point = 0.376 000 mm; 1 cicero = 12 Didot points. The Didot point system has been widely used in European countries. The American Point System was proposed in the 1870s, and his point system used the same method of size division. 1 pica = exactly 0.1660 inch; 1 point = 1/12 traditional pica = exactly 0.013 83 inch = 0.351 36 mm

    Thus the measure of 72.27/in. is just an approximation. Of course, when PostScript was being written, it was necessary to fit into an inch-measured world. For the sake of simplicity PostScript defined a point 1 point (Postscript) = 0.3527777778 mm as exactly 1/72". With the prevalance of DTP, the simplified point has replaced the older American point in many uses.

Portrait A page format in which the correct reading or viewing orientation is vertical; the height of the page is greater than its width: See also Landscape

Positive A reproduction that is exactly like the original

Posterization The conversion or reproduction of a continuous tone image to one with only a few distinct tones, or having a flat, poster-like quality

PMS An abbreviation for the Pantone Matching System

See Pantone

Prepress Camera work, color separating, stripping, platemaking, and other functions performed by the printer, separator, or service bureau prior to the actual printing

Primary Colors Any set of colors within a particular color system that are the most basic colors for that system. All other colors can be produced from the primaries, but the primaries cannot be produced by combinations of other colors

Printout Any hard copy of computer data

Proof Any early copy of to-be-reproduced material produced as a means of checking for typos or other similar errors, as well as positional errors, layout problems, and color aspects

Process Colors The printing of ›full color‹ images utilizing a photographic color separation process in which each of three primary colors--cyan, magenta, and yellow, plus black--are separated from the original art and given their own printing plate

Proportional Width In typography, individual character-width relationships based on character shape and typeface design. For example, the letter ›i‹ has a narrow width, while the letter ›m‹ has a wide width

Pull Quote In magazine publishing (and occasionally elsewhere), a small extract of text is pulled from a story or article and set off from the main text, often in a larger point size and/or different typeface, and may be surrounded by a border or rule. Often used for emphasis.


Ragged In typography, lines of type that are not justified; that is, they do not align at the right margin (Also called ragged right)

Raster Graphics Alternate term for bitmapped graphics: See Bitmap

Recto The odd-numbered page on the right side of an open book, or the right-hand page of a two-page spread: See also Verso

Register The degree to which successively printed colors (or images) are accurately positioned with respect to each other

Register Marks Small designs, shapes, or other patterns (most commonly a circle or oval with a cross through it) placed in non-image areas of negatives, positives, color separations, and plates to ensure correct register--or alignment--of successive colors and/or images

Registration The extent to which successively printed colors or images are positioned on the final print, with respect to each other or to their position on the original copy

See Register

Resolution A measure of the extent to which the human eye can distinguish between the smallest discrete parts of an image

Reverse Essentially, the negative of an image, or the producing of the negative of an image. The term reverse also refers to type or other matter that is designed to print as white on black (or dark colored) backgrounds.

RGB Abbreviation for Red, Green, Blue. In computer graphics, the three basic components of visible light, the various combinations of which produce all the colors of the spectrum.

Right Justified Alternate term for flush right: See Flush Right

Right-Reading Descriptive of any film or paper image that can be read normally--i.e., from left to right and top to bottom--as opposed to wrong-reading

River In typography, an optical path of white space that sometimes occurs when word spaces in successive lines of type occur immediately below each other and continue for several lines. This is distracting to the eye and aesthetically undesirable, and may be corrected by moving words from line to line in order to position the word spaces. Also known as a river of white

Rough A sketch or enhanced thumbnail of a page design or layout that depicts a somewhat accurate representation of the final size and position of all page elements. Roughs are usually drawn on tracing paper by hand. A more formalized design sketch is a comprehensive layout

Rule A geometric line used as a graphic enhancement in page assembly--the term is used to distinguish ruling lines from a line of type

Runaround In Typography, copy set so that it will create a ›hole‹ on the page to fit an illustration, photo, or other page elements. The term runaround is also used to refer to contour type, or type that is set to form a shape.

See Contour

Run-in In typography, any copy--specifically a head--designed to be set in the same line as the text

Running Foot In book typography, a ›heading‹--such as a book title, chapter title, or author--that is located at the bottom of consecutive pages, in contrast to a running head. A running foot may also include a folio.

Running Head In book typography, a heading--such as a book title, chapter title, or author--that is located at the top of consecutive pages, in contrast to a running foot. A running head may also include a folio.


Sans Serif In typography, characters (or typefaces) without serifs, which are lines crossing the free end of the stroke: ›Sans serif‹ means ›without serif‹

Scale The act of--or the computer function that facilitates--altering the size of an image or font proportionately

scalable font A scalable font, unlike a bitmapped font, is defined mathematically and can be rendered at any requested size (within reason).

Serif In typography, an all-inclusive term for characters that have a line crossing the free end of a stroke. The term serif refers to both that finishing line and to characters and typefaces that have them.

Service Bureau A business that provides manipulation and output of digital files, usually to a Postscript imagesetter

Sidebar In graphics and page layout, text and/or graphics set off from the primary text to impart additional or peripheral information

Sidebars may also be type set using a different font than the main text

sidebearings The distance between the origin and the left edge of a character (left sidebearing) and the distance between the width line and the right edge of a character (right sidebearing).

Soft Copy Any page, document, publication, or other data that exists on a computer display, rather than as a printout, or hard copy

Spread In page layout and printing, any two facing pages of a book, magazine, newspaper, or other publication

Stairstep In digital printing, an alternate term for jaggies or the effect of aliasing

Subhead In typography, a secondary heading, often in a smaller point size and set below the primary head

Subscript In typography, characters set in a small point size and positioned below the baseline, also called inferior

Substrate Term for any surface to be printed to which ink will adhere

Superscript In typography, characters set in a smaller point size and positioned above the baseline, also called superior

Swatch Shorthand term for color swatch. See Color Swatch!

Swipe File In graphic arts and design, a type of ›scrapbook‹ or collection of examples of good design--such as published advertisements, page designs, etc--from which an artist can draw for inspiration

SWOP Abbreviation for Specifications for Web-Offset Publications, a set of standards for color proofing developed by a joint committee to ensure that colors are reproduced consistently among different publishers and publications

symbol set The symbol set of a font describes the relative positions of individual characters within the font. Since there can only be 256 characters in most fonts, and there are well over 256 different characters used in professional document preparation, there needs to be some way to map characters into positions within the font. The symbol set serves this purpose. It identifies the ›map‹ used to position characters within the font.


Tabloid In newspaper publishing, a page size of a newspaper corresponding to 11 1/2 x 17 inches long. As tabloid paper was often used to print so-called ›scandal sheets,‹ the term ›tabloid‹ itself has come to refer to splashy, attention-grabbing (and, some would say, somewhat ›sleazy‹) journalism. Not to be confused with an 11 x 17 inch spread which is made up of two letter-sized pages.

Tags In desktop publishing, a code attached to a specific piece of text that provides instructions for its formatting. Tags applied to text include its font, point size, leading, paragraph formatting (ragged or justified), and any other text attribute

Template In page layout, a background grid, image, or shape used to indicate where page elements are to be inserted. Templates are used to define the default page layout for a publication

Text Wrap Alternate term for word wrap. See Word Wrap.

Thumbnails A small, crude sketch of a proposed page layout, usually generated in bunches during the brainstorming phase of design. Used primarily to seek approval as to which design warrants further development. A slightly more finalized layout sketch is known as a rough

TIFF Abbreviation for Tag Image File Format (or sometimes, Tagged Image File Format). A graphic and page layout file format for desktop computers. TIFF is used to transfer documents between different applications and computer platforms

Tint A printed image containing ›halftone‹ dots that are all of uniform size, as opposed to a halftone or vignette, which use variable-size dots to simulate a range of tones or shades

Tracking In typography, the adjusting of the letterspacing throughout a piece of typeset copy. See Letterspacing

Typeface In typography, a specific variation within a type family, such as roman, italic, bold, etc.: The features by which a character's design is recognized, hence the word face. Within the Latin language group of graphic shapes are the following forms: Uncial, Blackletter, Serif, Sans Serif, Scripts, and Decorative. Each form characterizes one or more designs. Example: Serif form contains four designs called Old Style, Transitional, Modern, and Slab Serif designs. The typeface called Bodoni is a Modern design, while Times Roman is a Transitional design.

Type Family In typography, a group of typefaces created by common design characteristics

Each member may vary by weight (bold vs regular) and width (expanded vs condensed) and may have related italic versions

Typescript Any original handwritten (manuscript) or typed copy from which type will be set

Typography The art and process of specifying, setting, or otherwise working with print-quality type, as opposed to typewriting. Typography involves the proper placement, positioning, and specification of type to ensure not only maximum legibility but also high aesthetic appeal.


U&lc Abbreviation for ›upper and lower case‹ letters and U&lc, ITC’s award-winning magazine

Unit In typography, some fraction of an em space that, due to the variation of the size of an em according to point size, varies from point size to point size

UV Coating Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light


Vector Graphic Also referred to as object-oriented, as elements within an image can be grouped together and considered by the software as individual ›objects‹. The detail of the image remains the same whether small in size or scaled larger

Verso The even-numbered page on the left-hand side of an open book, or the left-hand page of a two-page spread

See also Recto

Vignette An illustration in which the background color gradually decreases in strength (but not hue) as it gets closer to the edges of the image, until it gradually segues into the color of the paper


Watermark Translucent logo in paper created during manufacture by slight embossing while paper is still approximately 90 percent water

Weight In typography, the lightness or darkness in print of a particular typeface, based upon its design and thickness of line

White Space The total amount of non-image areas on a page, particularly gutters and margins. White space also refers to the space on either side of typographic characters, which can be reduced with tracking

Widow In typography, the last line of a paragraph when it is less than one-third the width of the line, especially when it is the carry-over of a hyphenated word. Widow can also refer to one word or word part standing alone in a line of a heading or a caption.

word space The white space between two words placed on the same horizontal line

Word Wrap In word processing (and other text-editing programs), a feature that automatically relocates a word to the next line when it will not fit on the current line

Wrong-Reading Descriptive of any film or paper image that cannot be read normally--i.e., from left to right, top to bottom--or is, in other words, a mirror image, as opposed to right-reading

WYSIWYG Abbreviation for ›What you see, is what you get.‹


x-Height In typography, the height of the lowercase letter ›x‹ representing the most important area of a letterform for 90% of lowercase characters, The flat height of the lowercase glyphs, usually the same as the top of the lowercase x.


YAML Yet Another Multicolumn Layout Yet Another Multicolumn Layout


Zinc etching Etching is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal (usually copper, zinc or steel) plate surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process?in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of material). As an intaglio method of printmaking it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains widely used today.